Mains Examination Syllabus
1.1 Meaning, Scope and development of Anthropology.
1.2 Relationships with other disciplines : Social Sciences, behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance :
- (a) Social-cultural Anthropology.
- (b) Biological Anthropology.
- (c) Archaeological Anthropology.
- (d) Linguistic Anthropology.
1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man :
- (a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.
- (b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).
- (c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).
1.5 Characteristics of Primates;
- Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.
1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following :
- (a) Plio-preleistocene hominids inSouth and East Africa—Australopithecines.
- (b) Homo erectus : Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus (heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis.
- (c) Neanderthal man—La-chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).
- (d) Rhodesian man.
- (e) Homo saoiens—Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.
1.7 The biological basis of Life :
- The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.
1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology :
- (a)Relative and Absolute Dating methods.
- (b) Cultural Evolution—Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures :
- (i) Paleolithic
- (ii) Mesolithic
- (iii) Neolithic
- (iv) Chalcolithic
- (v) Copper-Bronze Age
- (vi) Iron Age
2.1 The Nature of Culture :
- The concept and Characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-a-vis cultural Relativism.
2.2 The Nature of Society :
- Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institution; Social groups; and Social stratification.
2.3 Marriage :
- Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Type of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).
2.4 Family :
- Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.
2.5 Kinship :
- Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation;Decent and Alliance.
3. Economic Organization :
- Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.
4. Political Organization and Social Control :
- Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple Societies.
5. Religion :
- Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant Societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico-religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).
6. Anthropological theories :
- (a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
- (b) Historical particularism (Boas) Diffusionism (British, German and American)
- (c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural—Functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)
- (d) Structuralism (L’evi-Strauss and E. Leach)
- (e) Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora-du Bois)
- (f) Neo—evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
- (g) Cultural materialism (Harris)
- (h) Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
- (i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
- (j) Post-modernism in anthropology.
7. Culture, Language and Communication :
- Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social contex of language use.
8. Research methods in Anthropology :
- (a) Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
- (b) Distinction between technique, method and methodology
- (c) Tools of data collection : observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.
- (d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
9.1 Human Genetics :
- Methods and Application : Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.
9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency-mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.
9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.
- (a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
- (b) Sex chromosomal aberration- Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.
- (c)Autosomal aberrations- Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.
- (d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.
9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker :ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-ecomomic groups.
9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology : Bio-cultural Adaptations—Genetic and Non-genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.
9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology :
- Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases, Nutritional deficiency related diseases.
10. Concept of human growth and Development : Stages of growth—pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence. —Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic. —Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations —Biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.
11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.
11.2 Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural.
11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.
12. Applications of Anthropology :
- Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthroplogy in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthroplogy, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics—Paternity diagnosis, genetic counselling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.
- 1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization—Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization). Pre-Harappan, Harappan and post-Harappan cultures. Contributions of the tribal cultures to Indian civilization.
- 1.2 Palaeo—Anthropological evidences from India with special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).
- 1.3. Ethno-archaeology in India: The concept of ethno-archaeology; Survivals and Parallels among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including arts and crafts producing communities.
- 2. Demographic profile of India—Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population—factors influencing its structure and growth.
- 3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system—Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.
- 3.2 Caste system in India— Structure and characteristics Varna and caste, Theories of origin of caste system, Dominant caste, Caste mobility, Future of caste system, Jajmani system. Tribe-case continuum.
- 3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.
- 3.4. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity of Indian society.
- 4. Emergence, growth and development in India—Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators.
Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.
- 5.1 Indian Village—Significane of village study in India; Indian village as a social system; Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; Agrarian relations in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian villages.
- 5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.
- 5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society: Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play of little and great traditions; Panchayati Raj and social change; Media and Social change.
- 6.1 Tribal situation in India—Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution.
- 6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities—Land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, under- employment, health and nutrition.
- 6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation. Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanisation and industrialization on tribal populations.
- 7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.
- 7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies : Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.
- 7.3 The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments; Unrest among tribal communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism. Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.
- 8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.
- 8.2 Tribe and nation state—a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.
- 9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their development. Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.
- 9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
- 9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism and ethnic and political movements.
PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY
Physical Geography :
1. Geomorphology :
- Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply. geomorphic cycles and Land scape development; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development; Applied Geomorphology; Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.
2. Climatology :
- Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change, and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.
3. Oceanography :
- Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.
4. Biogeography :
- Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry, agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
5. Environmental Geography :
- Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.
Human Geography :
1. Perspectives in Human Geography :
- Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development indix.
2. Economic Geography :
- World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutritions problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.
3. Population and Settlement Geography :
- Growth and distribution of world population; Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
4. Regional Planning :
- Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Regional development strategies; Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply. Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography :
- System analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.
GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA
1. Physical Setting :
- Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation, Soil types and their distributions.
2. Resources :
- Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources, Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
3. Agriculture :
- Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors; land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture and poultry; Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones; Agro-ecological regions.
4. Industry :
- Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and ago-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector underkings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism.
5. Transport, Communication and Trade :
- Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline net works and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy;Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
6. Cultural Setting :
- Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; Cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, interaregional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
7. Settlements :
- Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Slums and asssociated problems; Town planning; Problems of urbanisation and remedies.
8. Regional Development and Planning:
- Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.
9. Political Aspects :
- Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; International boundary of India and related issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
10. Contemporary Issues :
- Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.
POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Political Theory and Indian Politics :
1. Political Theory: meaning and approaches.
2. Theories of state : Liberal, Neo-liberal, Marxist, Pluiralist, post-colonial and Feminist.
3. Justice : Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques.
4. Equality : Social, political and economic; relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.
5. Rights : Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; Concept of Human Rights.
6. Democracy : Classical and contemporary theories; different models of democracy—representative, participatory and deliberative.
7. Concept of power : hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.
8. Political Ideologies : Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism
9. Indian Political Thought: Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist Traditions; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Sri Aurobindo, M. K. Gandhi, B. R. Ambedkar, M. N. Roy. 10. Western Political Thought : Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, John S. Mill, Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt.
Indian Government and Politics
1. Indian Nationalism :
- (a) Political Strategies of India’s Freedom Struggle : Constitutionalism to mass Satyagraha, Non-cooperation, Civil Disobedience; Militant and Revolutionary Movements, Peasant and Workers Movements.
- (b) Perspectives on Indian National Movement; Liberal, Socialist and Marxist; Radical Humanist and Dalit.
2. Making of the Indian Constitution : Legacies of the British rule; different social and political perspectives.
3. Salient Features of the Indian Constitution :
- The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles; Parliamentary System and Amendment Procedures; Judicial Review and Basic Structure doctrine.
4. (a) Principal Organs of the Union Government :
- Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and Supreme Court.
(b) Principal Organs of the State Government :
- Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and High Courts.
5. Grassroots Democracy :
- Panchayati Raj and Municipal Government; Significance of 73rd and 74th Amendments; Grassroot movements.
6. Statutory Institutions/Commissions :
- Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General, Finance Commission, Union Public Service Commission, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women; National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Backward Classes Commission.
7. Federalism :
- Constitutional provisions; changing nature of centre-state relations; integrationist tendencies and regional aspirations; inter-state disputes.
8. Planning and Economic development :
- Nehruvian and Gandhian perspectives; Role of planning and public sector; Green Revolution, land reforms and
agrarian relations; liberalization and economic reforms.
9. Caste, Religion and Ethnicity in Indian Politics.
10. Party System :
- National and regional political parties, ideological and social bases of parties; Patterns of coalition politics; Pressure groups, trends in electoral behaviour; changing socio-economic profile of Legislators.
11. Social Movement :
- Civil liberties and human rights movements; women’s movements; environmentalist movements.
Comparative Politics and International Relations Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics :
1. Comparative Politics :
- Nature and major approaches; Political economy and political sociology perspectives; Limitations of the comparative method.
2. State in Comparative Perspective :
- Characteristics and changing nature of the State in capitalist and socialist economies, and advanced industrial and developing societies.
3. Politics of Representation and Participation :
- Political parties, pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.
4. Globalisation :
- Responses from developed and developing societies.
5. Approaches to the Study of International Relations :
- Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalist and Systems theory.
6. Key Concepts in International Relations :
- National interest, security and power; Balance of power and deterrence; Transational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy and globalisation.
7. Changing International Political Order :
- (a) Rise of super powers; Strategic and ideological Bipolarity, arms race and cold war; Nuclear threat;
- (b) Non-aligned Movement : Aims and achievements.
- (c) Collapse of the Soviet Union; Unipolarity and American hegemony; Relevance of non-alignment in the contemporary world.
8. Evolution of the International Economic System :
- From Brettonwoods to WTO; Socialist economies and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic
Assistance); Third World demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy.
9. United Nations :
- Envisaged role and actual record; Specialized UN agencies—aims and functioning; need for UN reforms.
10. Regionalisation of World Politics :
- EU, ASEAN, APEC, AARC, NAFTA.
11. Contemporary Global Concerns :
- Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice terrorism, nuclear proliferation.
India and the World
1. Indian Foreign Policy :
- Determinants of foreign policy; the institutions of policy-making; Continuity and change.
2. India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement Different phases; Current role.
3. India and South Asia :
- (a) Regional Co-operation : SAARC-past performance and future prospects.
- (b) South Asia as a Free Trade Area.
- (c) India’s “Look East” policy.
- (d) Impediments to regional co-operation : River water disputes; illegal cross border migration; Ethnic conflicts and insurgencies; Border disputes.
4. India and the Global South :
- Relations with Africa and Latin America; Leadership role in the demand for NIEO and WTO negotiations.
5. India and the Global Centres of Power :
- USA, EU, Japan, China and Russia.
6. India and the UN System:
- Role in UN Peace-keeping; Demand for Permanent Seat in the Security Council.
7. India and the Nuclear Question :
- Changing perceptions and policy.
8. Recent developments in Indian Foreign Policy :
- India’s position on the recent crises in Afghanistan, Iraq and West Asia, growing relations with US and Isreal; Vision of a new world order
1. Introduction :
- Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration, Wilson’s vision of Public Administration, Evolution of the discipline and its present status. New Public Administration, Public Choice approach; Challenges of liberalization, Privatisation, Globalisation; Good Governance: concept and application; New Public Management.
2. Administrative Thought :
- Scientific Management and Scientific Management movement; Classical Theory; Weber’s bureaucratic model its critique and post-Weberian Developments; Dynamic Administration (Mary Parker Follett); Human Relations School (Elton Mayo and others); Functions of the Executive (C.I. Barnard); Simon’s decision-making theory; Participative Management (R. Likert, C. Argyris, D. McGregor.)
3. Administrative Behaviour :
- Process and techniques of decision-making; Communication; Morale; Motivation Theories content, process and contemporary; Theories of Leadership: Traditional and Modem:
4. Organisations :
- Theories systems, contingency; Structure and forms: Ministries and Departments, Corporations, Companies; Boards and Commissions; Ad hoc, and advisory bodies; Headquarters and Field relationships; Regulatory Authorities; Public-Private Partnerships.
5. Accountability and Control :
- Concepts of accountability and control; Legislative, Executive and judicial control over administration; Citizen and Administration; Role of media, interest groups, voluntary organizations; Civil society; Citizen’s Charters; Right to Information; Social audit.
6. Administrative Law :
- Meaning, scope and significance; Dicey on Administrative law; Delegated legislation; Administrative Tribunals.
7. Comparative Public Administration :
- Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems; Administration and politics in different countries; Current status of Comparative Public Administration; Ecology and administration; Riggsian models and their critique.
8. Development Dynamics :
- Concept of development; Changing profile of development administration; ‘Anti-development thesis’; Bureaucracy and development; Strong state versus the market debate; Impact of liberalisation on administration in developing countries; Women and development the self-help group movement.
9. Personnel Administration :
- Importance of human resource development; Recruitment, training, career advancement, position classification, discipline, performance appraisal, promotion, pray and service conditions; employer-employee relations, grievance redressal mechanism; Code of conduct; Administrative ethics.
10. Public Policy :
- Models of policy-making and their critique; Processes of conceptualisation, planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review and their limitations; State theories and public policy formulation.
11. Techniques of Adminstrative Improvement :
- Organisation and methods, Work study and work management; e-governance and information technology; Management aid tools like network analysis, MIS, PERT, CPM.
12. Financial Administration :
- Monetary and fiscal policies: Public borrowings and public debt Budgets types and forms; Budgetary process; Financial accountability; Accounts and audit.
1. Evolution of Indian Administration :
- Kautilya Arthashastra; Mughal administration; Legacy of British rule in politics and administration Indianization of Public services, revenue administration, district Administration, local self Government. .
2. Philosophical and Constitutional framework of Government :
- Salient features and value premises; Constitutionalism; Political culture; Bureaucracy and democracy; Bureaucracy and development.
3. Public Sector Undertakings :
- Public sector in modern India; Forms of Public Sector Undertakings; Problems of autonomy, accountability and control; Impact of liberalization and privatization.
4. Union Government and Administration :
- Executive, Parliament, Judiciary-structure, functions, work processes; Recent trends; Intra-governmental relations; Cabinet Secretariat; Prime Minister’s Office; Central Secretariat; Ministries and Departments; Boards; Commissions; Attached offices; Field organizations.
5. Plans and Priorities :
- Machinery of planning; Role, composition and functions of the Planning Commission and the National Development Council; ‘Indicative’ planning; Process of plan formulation at Union and State levels; Constitutional Amendments (1992) and decentralized planning for economic development and social justice.
6. State Government and Administration : Union-State administrative, legislative and financial relations; Role of the Finance Commission; Governor; Chief Minister; Council of Ministers; Chief Secretary; State Secretariat; Directorates.
7. District Administration since Independence :
- Changing role of the Collector; Union-State-local relations; Imperatives of development management and law and order administration; District administration and democratic decentralization.
8. Civil Services :
- Constitutional position; Structure, recruitment, training and capacity building; Good governance initiatives; Code of conduct and discipline; Staff associations; Political rights; Grievance redressal mechanism; Civil service neutrality; Civil service activism.
9. Financial Management :
- Budget as a political instrument; Parliamentary control of public expenditure; Role of finance ministry in monetary and fiscal area; Accounting techniques; Audit; Role of Controller General of Accounts and Comptroller and Auditor General of India.
10. Administrative Reforms since Independence :
- Major concerns; Important Committees and Commissions; Reforms in financial management and human resource development; Problems of implementation.
11. Rural Development :
- Institutions and agencies since Independence; Rural development programmes: foci and strategies; Decentralization and Panchayati Raj; 73rd Constitutional amendment.
12. Urban Local Government :
- Municipal governance: main features, structures, finance and problem areas; 74th Constitutional Amendment; Global-local debate; New localism; Development dynamics, politics and administration with special reference to city management.
13. Law and Order Administration:
- British legacy; National Police Commission; Investigative agencies; Role of Central and State Agencies including para military forces in maintenance of law and order and countering insurgency and terrorism; Criminalisation of politics and administration; Police-public relations; Reforms in Police.
14. Significant issues in Indian Administration:
- Values in public service; Regulatory Commissions; National Human Rights Commission; Problems of administration in coalition regimes; Citizen administration interface; Corruption and administration; Disaster management.
FUNDAMENTALS OF SOCIOLOGY
1. Sociology – The Discipline:
- (a) Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of Sociology.
- (b) Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
- (c) Sociology and common sense.
2. Sociology as Science:
- (a) Science, scientific method and critique.
- (b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
- (c) Positivism and its critique.
- (d) Fact value and objectivity.
- ( e) Non-positivist methodologies.
3. Research Methods and Analysis:
- (a) Qualitative and quantitative methods.
- (b) Techniques of data collection.
- (c ) Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.
4. Sociological Thinkers:
- (a) Karl Marx – Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
- (b) Emile Durkhteim – Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
- (c) Max Weber – Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
- (d) Talcolt Parsons – Social system, pattern variables.
- (e) Robert K. Merton – Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups.
- (f) Mead – Self and identity.
5. Stratification and Mobility :
- (a) Concepts – equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation.
- (b) Theories of social stratification – Structural func tionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
- (c) Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
- (d) Social mobility – open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.
6. Works and Economic Life :
- (a) Social organization of work in different types of society – slave society, feudal society, industrial capitalist society.
- (b) Formal and informal organization of work.
- (c) Labour and society.
7. Politics and Society:
- (a) Sociological theories of power.
- (b) Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups and political parties.
- (c) Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
- (d) Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.
8. Religion and Society :
- (a) Sociological theories of religion.
- (b) Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
- (c) Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamen talism.
9. Systems of Kinship:
- (a) Family, household, marriage.
- (b) Types and forms of family
- (c) Lineage and descent.
- (d) Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.
- (e) Contem porary trends.
10. Social Change in Modern Society :
- (a) Sociological theories of social change.
- (b) Development and dependency.
- (c) Agents of social change.
- (d) Education and social change.
- (e) Science, technology and social change.
INDIAN SOCIETY : STRUCTURE AND CHANGE
A. Introducing Indian Society :
(i) Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society :
- (a) Indology (G.S. Ghure).
- (b) Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas).
- (c) Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai).
(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :
- (a) Social background of Indian nationalism.
- (b) Modernization of Indian tradition.
- (c) Protests and movements during the colonial period.
- (d) Social reforms.
B. Social Structure:
(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:
- (a) The idea of Indian village and village studies.
- (b) Agrarian social structure— evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.
(ii) Caste System:
- (a) Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S. Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
- (b) Features of caste system.
- (c) Untouchability-forms and perspectivs
(iii) Tribal Communities in India:
- (a) Definitional problems.
- (b) Geographical spread.
- (c) Colonial policies and tribes.
- (d) Issues of integration and autonomy.
(iv) Social Classes in India:
- (a) Agrarian class structure.
- (b) Industrial class structure.
- (c) Middle classes in India.
(v) Systems of Kinship in India:
- (a) Lineage and descent in India.
- (b) Types of kinship systems.
- (c) Family and marriage in India.
- (d) Household dimensions of the family.
- (e) Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division oflabour.
(vi) Religion and Society :
- (a) Religious communities in India.
- (b) Problems of religious minorities.
C. Social Changes in India:
(i) Visions of Social Change in India:
- (a) Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
- (b) Constitution, law and social change.
- (c) Education and social change.
(ii) Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India:
- (a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.
- (b) Green revolution and social change.
- (c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture.
- (d) Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.
(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:
- (a) Evolution of modern industry in India.
- (b) Growth of urban settlements in India.
- (c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
- (d) Informal sector, child labour.
- (e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas.
(iv) Politics and Society :
- (a) Nation, democracy and citizenship.
- (b) Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite.
- (c) Regionalism and decentralization of power.
- (d) Secularization.
(v) Social Movements in Modern India :
- (a) Peasants and farmers movements.
- (b) Women’s movement.
- (c) Backward classes & Dalit movements.
- (d) Environmental movements.
- (e) Ethnicity and Identity movements.
(vi) Population Dynamics :
- (a) Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
- (b) Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
- (c) Population Policy and family planning.
- (d) Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.
(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation :
- (a) Crisis of development : displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
- (b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
- (c) Violence against women.
- (d) Caste conflicts.
- (e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
- (f) Illiteracy and disparities in education.