Mains Examination Syllabus



1.1 Meaning, Scope and development of Anthropology. 

1.2 Relationships with other disciplines : Social Sciences, behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities. 
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance :

1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man : 

1.5 Characteristics of Primates;

1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following : 

1.7 The biological basis of Life : 

1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology : 

2.1 The Nature of Culture :

2.2 The Nature of Society :

2.3 Marriage :

2.4 Family :

2.5 Kinship

3. Economic Organization :

4. Political Organization and Social Control :

5. Religion :

 6. Anthropological theories :

7. Culture, Language and Communication :

8. Research methods in Anthropology :

 9.1 Human Genetics :

9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.
 9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency-mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages. 
9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology. 

9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.
 9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker :ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-ecomomic groups. 
9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology : Bio-cultural Adaptations—Genetic and Non-genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate. 
9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology :

10. Concept of human growth and Development : Stages of growth—pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence. —Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic. —Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations —Biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies. 

11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials. 

11.2 Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural. 

11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality. 

12. Applications of Anthropology :


Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies. 




Physical Geography :

 1. Geomorphology :

 2. Climatology :

3. Oceanography

4. Biogeography :

5. Environmental Geography :

 Human Geography : 

1. Perspectives in Human Geography :

2. Economic Geography :

 3. Population and Settlement Geography :

4. Regional Planning :

 5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography :



1. Physical Setting :

2. Resources :

 3. Agriculture :

 4. Industry :

 5. Transport, Communication and Trade :

6. Cultural Setting :

 7. Settlements :

8. Regional Development and Planning:

9. Political Aspects :

10. Contemporary Issues :



 Political Theory and Indian Politics : 

1. Political Theory: meaning and approaches.
2. Theories of state : Liberal, Neo-liberal, Marxist, Pluiralist, post-colonial and Feminist. 
3. Justice : Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques. 
4. Equality : Social, political and economic; relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.
 5. Rights : Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; Concept of Human Rights. 
6. Democracy : Classical and contemporary theories; different models of democracy—representative, participatory and deliberative. 
7. Concept of power : hegemony, ideology and legitimacy. 
8. Political Ideologies : Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism  
9. Indian Political Thought: Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist Traditions; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Sri Aurobindo, M. K. Gandhi, B. R. Ambedkar, M. N. Roy. 10. Western Political Thought : Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, John S. Mill, Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt. 

Indian Government and Politics 

1. Indian Nationalism : 

2. Making of the Indian Constitution : Legacies of the British rule; different social and political perspectives. 
3. Salient Features of the Indian Constitution :

 4. (a) Principal Organs of the Union Government :

 (b) Principal Organs of the State Government :

5. Grassroots Democracy :

6. Statutory Institutions/Commissions :

7. Federalism :

8. Planning and Economic development :

agrarian relations; liberalization and economic reforms.
 9. Caste, Religion and Ethnicity in Indian Politics. 
10. Party System :

11. Social Movement :


Comparative Politics and International Relations  Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics : 

1. Comparative Politics :

2. State in Comparative Perspective :

3. Politics of Representation and Participation :

4. Globalisation

 5. Approaches to the Study of International Relations :

6. Key Concepts in International Relations :

7. Changing International Political Order : 

8. Evolution of the International Economic System :

Assistance); Third World demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy. 
9. United Nations :

10. Regionalisation of World Politics :

11. Contemporary Global Concerns :

 India and the World 

1. Indian Foreign Policy :

2. India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement Different phases; Current role. 
3. India and South Asia : 

4. India and the Global South :

5. India and the Global Centres of Power :

6. India and the UN System:

7. India and the Nuclear Question :

8. Recent developments in Indian Foreign Policy :



Administration Theory 

1. Introduction :

2. Administrative Thought :

 3. Administrative Behaviour

4. Organisations :

5. Accountability and Control

 6. Administrative Law :

7. Comparative Public Administration

8. Development Dynamics

9. Personnel Administration

10. Public Policy

11. Techniques of Adminstrative Improvement :

12. Financial Administration :


 Indian Administration 

1. Evolution of Indian Administration

2. Philosophical and Constitutional framework of Government

3. Public Sector Undertakings

 4. Union Government and Administration

5. Plans and Priorities

6. State Government and Administration : Union-State administrative, legislative and financial relations; Role of the Finance Commission; Governor; Chief Minister; Council of Ministers; Chief Secretary; State Secretariat; Directorates. 

7. District Administration since Independence

8. Civil Services

9. Financial Management

10. Administrative Reforms since Independence

11. Rural Development

12. Urban Local Government

13. Law and Order Administration

14. Significant issues in Indian Administration:




1. Sociology – The Discipline:

2. Sociology as Science:

3. Research Methods and Analysis:

4. Sociological Thinkers:

5. Stratification and Mobility :

6. Works and Economic Life :

7. Politics and Society:

8. Religion and Society :

9. Systems of Kinship:

10. Social Change in Modern Society :



A. Introducing Indian Society :

(i) Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society : 

 (ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society : 

B. Social Structure:

(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure: 

(ii) Caste System: 

(iii) Tribal Communities in India:

(iv) Social Classes in India: 

(v) Systems of Kinship in India: 

(vi) Religion and Society : 

 C. Social Changes in India: 
(i) Visions of Social Change in India:

(ii) Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India: 

(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India: 

(iv) Politics and Society : 

(v) Social Movements in Modern India : 

(vi) Population Dynamics : 

(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation :